Azerbaijan is surrounded by mountains, occupying more than half of its territory: to the north is the Greater Caucasus with the highest peak of the country Bazaar - dyuzy - 4480m (its southeastern part reaches Azerbaijan), to the southwest is the massive Transcaucasian upland extending to Armenia and Georgia, mounted by the Lesser Caucasus, to the south the Talysh Mountains join them.
In the west beyond the boundary of the Republic, the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus are bound by Likh (Suram) range and that territory in Azerbaijan is occupied by the vast Kur-Araz lowland. It is edged with sloping valleys and lowlands. Thus the surface of Azerbaijan resembles a gigantic tray with sharp mountainous edges, sloping to Caspian.
The exceptions to this description are the four isolated valleys: one is on the northern slope of the Greater Caucasus (Gusar valley and Samur-Devechi lowlands) another is inside the Transcaucasian highland, (PriAraz valley of Nakhchivan), the third is on the Apsheron Peninsula descending far to the sea and the fourth is Lankaran lowland at the foot of the Talysh Mountains. These most striking features of the surface along with peculiarities of geographical position profoundly determine the diversity and bounties of its unique nature, comprising the features of the Caucasus and Middle Asia.